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7 Generations of Hicks Family Women in Thirroul

I’d seen another post where a writer reflected on International Womens Day 2014  and seven generations of strong women in her family. It triggered my thinking on the role of seven generations of women in my own Hicks Family in the small NSW seaside town of Thirroul.

We’ve had seven generations of women on Mum’s maternal side (Hicks Family) who’ve lived in Thirroul since the 1880’s, back when it was separated from North Bulli (now Austinmer) and it began to be called Robbinsville. Before that, from the 1830’s, earlier generations of family members had lived from Fairy Meadow to Austinmer.

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For 150 years our family’s women have lived in Thirroul – Austinmer, serving the Northern Illawarra community in many areas.

  • Margaret Hicks nee Daly/Brain spent her last years here in Thirroul, after living in nearby North Bulli (Austinmer) for over 40 years
  • Margaret’s daughter in law Mary Ann Hicks nee McKenzie spent nearly half of her 90 years here
  • Mary Ann’s daughter Edith Florence Joy nee Hicks lived nearly 50 years here
  • Edith’s younger sister Ida McKenzie Webb nee Hicks lived for over 30 years in Thirroul
  • Edith’s daughter Mary Constance “Molly” Callcott nee Joy lived nearly 40 years here
  • Molly’s daughter Joan Lois Adams nee Callcott lived all but 4 of her 80 years in Thirroul
  • Joan’s cousin Margaret Risk nee Joy has lived nearly 70 years in Thirroul
  • Joan’s daughter Kerrie Anne Christian nee Adams (that’s me) – I’ve lived here for over 45 years
  • Margaret Risk’s daughter Julie Risk has been here for 50 years
  • Kerrie’s daughter Katrina Elise Christian grew up  in Thirroul from birth and commenced her adult years here

Margaret Hicks was born in 1819, a daughter of convicts, able to read and write when many could not, including her husband, James Hicks. That she was literate undoubtedly helped their rise from small landholders to Northern Illawarra Pioneers  who supported churches, schools and were active lobbiers in political matters, while she was bearing and rearing 13 children to adulthood. Evidence of her capabilities ? Husband James Hicks appointed her Executor for his will and estate rather than his eldest son, Henry Thomas Hicks,  who was the senior JP of the district, presiding over countless court cases and Executor of others’ wills. Yet Margaret was appointed Executor of the Will and Estate in the early 1890’s, when she did not then enjoy the right to vote.

Mary Ann Hicks in 1839, was the first Australian born child of her McKenzie parents,  after they left the Isle of Skye, Scotland. The wife of a North Illawarra Council Alderman, mother of a North Illawarra Council Mayor and coal miner Union President – but Mary Ann, herself was active in the community life of Thirroul, as well as nearby Austinmer and Thirroul.

Edith Florence Joy, a widowed single mother raising her children in the early 20th Century years, long lived a little in the shadow of her iconic mother, Mary Ann Hicks, and supporting her daughter Molly’s community fundraising activities. Nevertheless she was active in community affairs in the town – in the church, fundraising for causes such as the war effort in WWI.

Ida McKenzie Webb was one of the early 20th Century school teachers in the northern Illawarra. After her marriage she retired from teaching, but remained involved in the Thirroul community fundraising activities for many years.

Molly Callcott, with her orchestra, was involved in many fundraising and community events in the years prior to her marriage and motherhood. Following her marriage breakdown, she was left to bring up her five children singlehandedly, and became a Hardies Rubber Factory Girl.

Joan Lois Adams was involved in many organisations from her late 20’s and generally as Secretary or Treasurer –  including Mother’s Club at Thirroul School, RSL Tennis Club, Stroke Support, War Widows Guild, RSL Laurel Club, Legacy and Red Cross. Joan’s cousin Margaret Risk, as well as daughter Julie Risk, have long been active members of the Kennel Club.

Kerrie Anne Christian followed in the footsteps of her community leader and Northern Illawarra pioneer great great grandfather Captain – Alderman Henry Thomas Hicks JP, and her Great Great Uncle Mayor & Miners Federation President Alex Hicks. She has been a NSW State Union President, an Alderman – Councillor on Wollongong City Council, Steelworks Quality & Engineering Manager, a Council member of the local University, occasional guest lecturing at the University on Women in Non Traditional Roles, and involved in many community activities over the last 40 years.

Katrina Elise Christian, an Engineering University student, is just starting out in life, and has already earned her Queens Girl Guide Award, presented by NSW Governor Her Excellency Professor Marie Bashir. The Queens Girl Guide Award requires community service – and Katrina has now worked her way up from being a junior Girl Guide leader to a full leader.

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Mary Ann Hicks – A Thirroul Pioneering Woman – 1839-1930

Mary Ann Hicks nee McKenzie 1839 – 1930 of Thirroul. 



Born at Fairy Meadow, in 1839, Mary Ann McKenzie was the first Illawarra-born child of Alexander McKenzie and wife Anne. She married Henry Thomas Hicks on November 5 1861, and so would be described on her death as one of the grand old pioneers of the district.  On marrying Henry Thomas Hicks she became a member of the pioneering Hicks family of the northern Illawarra. The family lived in various locations : Russell Vale (from 1842), Austinmer – North Bulli (from 1843), Wollongong, Towradgi  and Thirroul – Robbinsville (circa 1880’s). 



Above – Mary Ann Hicks (with cap) and daughter Edith Florence Joy (nee Hicks) – circa 1920’s

Parents Alexander McKenzie and Anne McLean
Alexander McKenzie, father of Mary Ann McKenzie,  was born on the Isle of Skye in 1803, and had married Anne McLean in 1829 at Armadale,  on the Isle of Skye in the Parish of Sleat. They travelled to Australia, on a bounty ship in 1837  (the William Nicol), with their elder 4 children:  

  • Daniel b 1831 Armadale, Isle of Skye
  • Donald b 1832 Armadale, Isle of Skye
  • Alexander b 1834 Armadale, Isle of Skye
  • John b 1835 Armadale, Isle of Skye

Four more children were born in the Illawarra :
  • Mary Ann b 1839 Fairy Meadow, NSW
  • Catherine b 1842 Berkley, NSW
  • Agnes b 1843 Springhill, NSW d 1844
  • Another child, Anne, died 1846 Berkeley 

Settling in Ellengowan
In Australia, Mary Ann’s father, Alexander McKenzie of Ellengowan became active in the Illawarra Agricultural and Horticultural Society for much of the 1850-60’s. Ellengowan was in the Fairy Meadow – Parameadows area – which was the site of a battle between the Bong Bong tribe and a Wollongong tribe 4/3/1827 – known as the Battle of Parameadows

Following first wife Ann’s death, Alexander had  remarried in 1849 at Parramatta to Elizabeth Hanks, they had eight children :
  • Elizabeth b 1850 Balgownie, NSW
  • Robert b 1851 Balgownie, NSW
  • Hugh b 1853 Balgownie, NSW
  • Thomas b 1854 Bulli, NSW
  • Anne b 1858 Bulli, NSW
  • Flora b 1860 Bulli, NSW
  • Charles b 1861 Bulli, NSW
  • Christina b 1863 Taralga, Goulburn

Marriage of Mary Ann McKenzie to Henry Thomas Hicks
On 5.11.1861, Mary Ann McKenzie married Henry Thomas Hicks,  the eldest son of James and Margaret Hicks of Austinmer, then known as North Bulli.

Mary Ann  and Henry Thomas Hicks lived on Hicks Farm in Thirroul,  with their ten surviving children, four did not survive – 14 children in total! One wonders how much time Mary Ann had for herself in bearing 14 children over the twenty five years of  1862-1887 ?


Above : Mary Ann Hicks (aged 75 years), daughter Edith Florence Joy (nee Hicks), grandson Kenneth Charles, unknown girls  at  her home, “Everest”, Seaview Terrace or Hicks Farm(?) Thirroul 1915. 


Children of Mary Ann Hicks 

As kids we heard that Mary Ann and Henry Thomas Hicks had the orchards, also known as Hicks Farm. There were also stories of Mary Ann Hicks living at “Mount Hope” near the Thirroul Railway Station –  Mary Ann’s Bible  shows her address as “Mount Hope”.

Many of the children of Mary Ann and Henry Thomas Hicks had left Thirroul over the years, moving to Sydney and further north. Daughter Mary Alice Hicks remained at home, caring for Mary Ann for many years at Thirroul, before finally marrying widower Alfred Cook in 1929 when she was in her late 50’s. Alfred was also the brother of Alexander Cook, husband of Mary Alice’s oldest sister, Margaret Minnie. Another daughter, the widow Edith Florence Joy, appears to have returned to care for her mother in her last years.

Death of Mary Ann Hicks
Years ago, I recall seeing a beautiful tribute to Mary Ann, written in an old Church Parish newsletter (St David’s Thirroul). Mary Ann had lived past 90 years of age, until her death in 1930.  And the March 1930 Church Parish newsletter had later been  safely stored away by her great granddaughter, Joan Adams (nee Callcott – who was also my mother).  In working through my late mother’s papers and books, I took some time to find the obituaries. Predictably among the last items to surface, at the bottom of large chest of drawers, finally enabling a window into some of Mary Ann’s personal life. Re-reading them maybe 2 or 3 decades since I last saw them, these tributes now have even more meaning for me. Click to read tributes to Mary Ann Hicks nee McKenzie.

Mary Ann Hicks died at her home, “Everest”, in  Seaview Terrace Thirroul on February 23 1930 – see death notice Sydney Morning Herald February 24 1930.

HICKS -February 23, 1930, at her residence, “Everest”, Seaview Terrace, Thirroul, Mary Ann, relict  of the late H. T. Hicks, in her 90th year.

 Also funeral notice – Sydney Morning Herald February 24 2012.

HICKS- The Relatives and Friends of the FAMILY of the late MARY ANN HICKS are kindly invited to attend the Funeral of their late beloved MOTHER; to leave her late residence,Everest, Seaview-Terrace, Thirroul, on TUESDAY  AFTERNOON at 3 o’clock for St Augustine’s    Church of England Cemetery, Bulli. W J WILLIAMS, Undertaker. (includes corrections)

Husband Henry Thomas Hicks of Thirroul – 1836-1909
Note – Mary Ann’s husband Henry Thomas Hicks is mentioned in the Illawarra  census of 1881, along with William Fry, Henry Stumbles, Michael Shannon, Thomas Francis Lindsay, George Brown and William Osborne. 

Henry Thomas Hicks chaired a public meeting in 1865 for the establishment of  Bulli National School. He was elected as an alderman to North Illawarra Council in 1887 and 1888 – a separate Bulli Shire Council would not be formed until 1905, although lobbying for its formation had occurred in 1889, with Henry Thomas Hicks and Mr Farraher actively involved.  Henry’s son, Alexander Henry  Hicks, elected Mayor of North Illawarra and president of the Illawarra Miners Association in 1905, at the unveiling of the Mount Kembla Mining Disaster Memorial. It is interesting to note in Mary Ann Hicks’ Obituaries, that she could, and would, discuss politics, and was committed to voting. Note – Henry Thomas Hicks’ great granddaughter Kerrie Anne Christian (nee Adams) was narrowly defeated at the city-wide election of Wollongong City Council in 1989 – but was successful at Ward One elections in 1991, 1995 and 1995 – she did not contest the 2004 elections.


He was also actively involved in the early days of Thirroul Public School, where he presided over the opening in 1889; also at St Augustine’s Anglican Church in Park Rd Bulli. He was a Captain in the Bulli Reserve Rifle Club from 1890, and also the Executor of a number of wills for local Northern Illawarra residents, including William Kirton. Also, possibly JP (Peter) Orvad, a member of the Bulli Progress Committee and owner of the Denmark Hotel, according to Rita Roberts one of Orvad’s descendants (as told to Kerrie Anne Christian during the Back to Bulli” celebration of 1989).

Alderman Rube Hargrave – Ward 1, Wollongong City Council


I’d always felt a connectedness to Ald Rube Hargrave, the first woman to serve as an alderman on Wollongong Council, 50 years ago in 1959, a century after local government had come to the Wollongong area. The council had been formed from an amalgamation of 3 smaller councils in 1947. It was 12 years before Rube broke the barriers as the first woman alderman, before going on to also become the first woman Deputy Lord Mayor. Rube also ran for the NSW State Parliament in 1965 & 1968. However the residents of the northern suburbs of Wollongong were not ready for a non ALP State Representative.

Local northern suburbs journalist & historian, Mick Roberts, quotes her maiden speech to the council “I come here humbly, as a representative of many women’s organisations. I would like to extend the warm hand of fellowship to my fellow aldermen. I will at all times be accessible, and I will try to be wholly impartial. I feel proud because I represent so many fine women, and I will not let them down.

We had both lived in Thirroul, represented the northern suburbs (Ward 1) on Wollongong City Council, as well as serving on the Illawarra County Council & Illawarra Electricity Boards respectively. It is very humbling to represent such a very special & fragile area, bounded by the Royal National Park to the north, the Pacific Ocean to the east and the magnificent Illawarra Escarpment in the west. Rube had served from 1959-1971, and I from 1991-2004.

At the Bulli Lookout Kiosk, (now The Cliffhanger), during my high school & university years, I’d also worked for Rube’s nephew, Peter Chamberlain (& also a childhood neighbour of my mother – Joan Adams(Callcott) & of NSW Speaker – The Hon. Laurie Kelly). Having no children of their own, Rube and Uncle Jack Hargrave were understandably close to Peter and his brother Teddy. So at Bulli Lookout Kiosk there were often stories of Aunty Rube. Inevitably there was gently exposure to the realm of local politics; especially as Pat Williams and Iris Wheeler, daughters of former Mayor Albert Squires, also worked there.

At high school it was Ald Rube who inducted us as prefects at Bulli High School, where I’d also been in the same class as Sandra, her great niece. Sandra’s brother John, like myself, worked in the technology field in BHP Steel. Their sister Kerrie Ahlburg has been my daughter’s (Katrina Christian) Girl Guide Leader … and so on. And during my 12 years as a Wollongong City Councillor, Rube’s nephew, Peter Chamberlain, regularly dropped little notes on all the things he saw needed doing.

At Rube Hargrave’s funeral in 1996, Peter’s son, John Chamberlain, spoke very movingly of her long and rich life. So in 1997, when the then Wollongong City Councillors were asked to speak on themes to honour 50 years of the City of Wollongong, I chose to speak on Ald Rube Hargrave. Her nephew, Peter Chamberlain, and his wife, Bron, generously shared their memories of their Aunty Rube with me … showing many treasured items from her public life.

Speech by Cr Kerrie Christian at the 50th anniversary meeting of the formation of Wollongong Council – September 18 1997.

“Thank you Lord Mayor

Tonight I feel privileged to speak of a former deputy lord mayor of Wollongong, indeed the first woman deputy lord mayor of Wollongong, Rube Hargrave, as we celebrate our 50th anniversary.

Cr Franks I understand will speak more broadly on the role of women in local government and as the longest serving woman in local government in Wollongong’s history that is truly her honour to do so – but tonight I would like to say a few brief words about one, Rube Hargrave. Sadly she is unable to be with us tonight, having passed away at the grand age of 97 late last year. But those of us who attended her funeral last year will remember it as a very moving ceremony – a celebration of a very full and rich life.

So tonight I think that it is important that along with looking to the future that we acknowledge this watershed, that with the support of the Women’s Local government Promotion Committee Rube Hargrave became the first woman to be elected to Wollongong Council as an alderman back in 1959 – after nearly a century of local government in our city area.

Naturally there were other firsts for Rube hargrave – in 1970 she was elected as not only Wollongong’s but also nsw’s first woman deputy lord mayor. She also Served on the Illawarra County Council from 1968 from 1971 – the first woman from Wollongong Council to do so – an interesting feat in itself. It should also be mentioned that she was made a life member of the Local Government Women’s Association. She was considered to be a truly remarkable woman – but then what would you expect from the person who was also claimed to be Australia’s first woman driving instructor. She quite clearly deserved the Order of Australia that was ultimately presented to her by Governor Sinclair.

Wollongong, in 1959 when Rube Hargrave was first elected to Wollongong Council – nearly 40 years ago was indeed a different place. But I think that it was noteworthy that she had chosen to enter politics because she wished “to break down prejudice against women in the city, to prove women have brains equal to men and to prove that their advice, ideas and counsel in government can be valuable”.

She certainly must have demonstrated that and quickly cleared the way for others – because she was joined by two others – that is Alderman Ryan and Alderman Kelly in 1962. However, sadly there was a drought of women on council over 12 years from 1971 until 1983 before we saw Councillor Franks along with norma wilson elected to council.

On a personal note I guess that I must have experienced some sort of latent or vicarious inspiration as I worked as a teenager for Rube’s nephew in the late 1960’s and early 1970’s at the Bulli Lookout kiosk and as I listened to the talk of Aunty Rube’s doings at council – a highlight I remember at the time being her election as Deputy Lord mayor and her involvement in the visit of Princess Ann to our city.

It is also not surprising that given her involvement in running the Sublime Point kiosk and Clifton’s Imperial Hotel and her husband Jack’s employment in the steel industry that Rube Hargrave would have had an appreciation of key industries in our region.

I also noted with interest when I attended Rube Hargrave’s funeral late last year that two of her principle concerns had included the installation of pram ramps in the city and also the construction of a footpath along the cliffs in the northern suburbs from Clifton to Scarborough – an issue with which Councillor Martin will no doubt empathise. Quite clearly some issues still remain as important basic responsibilities so far as the community is concerned. Even as we near the end of the 90’s with all sorts of reform and buzz words in local government, we are still reminded of these fundamental needs of all our citizens.

But along with running the city and entertaining royalty she still found time to do the exquisite cutwork embroidery and to make knitted dolls to be sold on various stalls for charities such as Red Cross and Crippled Children. She was also a founding member not to mention president of the Northern Suburbs Meals on Wheels. In fact she retained her involvement with groups such as the Guides at Woonona even into her 90’s. And a number of Community organisations were very grateful when they found that she had remembered them in her will.

Obviously there are a range of interesting memories of Rube Hargrave – including some told by our general manager but I will say no more on that – I also understand that she may have also upset at least one other elected rep in the region – but to me that would seem to indicate that she was doing her job and making her presence felt as a strong woman who was working for the betterment of our city. I do think that it was notable that Rube continued to retain an interest in wollongong’s local government affairs – offering quite strong opinions even up until as late as 1995.

Now Rube Hargrave also had the reputation amongst her family and friends of being an excellent cook and so I think of the story of her memorable reply when she was told that a woman’s place was in the kitchen, not representing the people of Wollongong – she replied that she was just as happy in the kitchen as on the council. A true woman of the 20th century.

Perhaps it was to be expected last year when her nephew John Chamberlain spoke so movingly in delivering the eulogy saying that Rube Hargrave had believed that she had been elected to represent every man, woman and child, no matter what race or religion. I think that in this Rube Hargrave has left us a legacy for the next 50 years , not only for women councillors, but for all councillors, a legacy that seems to sit very well with the charter which earlier this year that we as a city invited leaders from across our community to sign – the charter proudly proclaiming that Wollongong is a city of access and opportunity for all.”

When first elected in 1991, I had written to Rube saying how honoured I felt to be following in her footsteps. In reply, Rube wrote a typically very practical letter of advice on being a female alderman. So especially evocative for me, are the photos of Rube in Thirroul taken over a period of 60 years … A young woman, Rube in a 1930’s photo, (taken near my current home), in what is now Hamilton St Thirroul. Her home at the bottom of Bulli Pass, (near my previous home), since resumed in the 1950’s by the Department of Main Roads. At the opening of the first Thirroul Library in 1960 (wonderful to have that little library building in Thirroul in the 1960’s), and a frail Rube receiving an OAM in 1993.

Mick Roberts has also written of her involvement as a past patron of “Thirroul Red Cross, Bulli Kennel Club (more), Poultry Club, Coledale Surf Club (Woman’s Aux), CWA, Wollongong Civilian Widows, Fraternity Bowling Club, Crippled Children‘s Society, Bulli Agriculture Society, Bulli High School and the Woonona Girl Guides. She was a life member of the Local Government Women’s Association, foundation Soroptimist Club president, was an active member of the Professional and Business Woman’s Association, the Crippled Children Society, Sub normal Children’s Society and Chesalon Home for the Aged.

A life truly well lived.